The hottest renewable lead in the future

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The future of recycled lead (Part 1)

the concentration of lead deposits and the easy reduction of ores have been recognized and applied by mankind as early as 5000 years before the era. Ancient Egypt, ancient Greece Roman Empire and ancient China "We aim at the different consumption habits of Asian consumers. In terms of lead metallurgy and application, we have made Eastern and Western civilizations complement each other, illuminating the historical process of human society. Entering the modern industrial society, the unique properties of lead can be brought into full play, which has greatly increased its output and consumption. By the mid-19th century, the world's lead production has increased to 100000 tons per year. At the beginning of the 20th century, it has increased to 1million tons per year. After a century of vicissitudes, it is estimated that 2001 In, the annual output and consumption of lead in the world have reached or exceeded 6million tons. At present, the consumption of lead has become the fifth metal material in the world after iron, aluminum, copper and zinc

the rapid growth of lead consumption is inseparable from its unique physicochemical and machining properties. In 1859, the Frenchman Gaston plante found that lead oxide (ph02) and metal lead were used as positive and negative electrodes respectively. Immersing them in sulfuric acid medium can produce current and can be continuously charged and discharged. The discovery and application of this property is of great significance to expand the application field of lead and form a huge market

at present, the global consumption of lead is generally maintained at the level of 6million tons, 70% of which are applied in the form of metal lead or lead alloy, and the other 30% are applied in the form of lead compounds such as oxides, organic lead, lead chromate, lead sulfate, lead silicate and lead carbonate

in terms of application pattern, since the 1960s, the total number of motor vehicles has increased rapidly at an annual growth rate of 3.6%. So far, the global car ownership has reached 650million, which makes the demand for lead in vehicle lead-acid batteries rise sharply at the same time. In the same period, due to the large amount of aluminum and plastic replacing lead to manufacture cable sheaths, and due to the enhanced awareness of environmental protection, the world generally has a deeper understanding of the harm of lead to human body, so that tetraethyl lead and lead containing pigments, which have been used as Gasoline Antiknock Agents for a long time, have lost or are losing the market. Therefore, the prominent position of lead in battery production is more obvious

according to the estimation of the international lead zinc research group (1lzsg), the proportion of lead in battery production in western developed countries accounted for only 28% of the total in 1960, but it has risen to 73% by 1997. Among them, the application structure of lead in the United States is the most representative. On the one hand, the increasing awareness of environmental protection requires people to minimize the exposure of lead to human body; On the other hand, the automotive industry is more obviously dependent on lead-acid batteries and has chosen a way to pursue advantages and avoid disadvantages: of the 1221000 tons of lead consumed in the United States in 1997, batteries accounted for 92.3%, cables accounted for 0.6%, semi-finished products and alloys were 5.2% and 1.4% respectively, and there is no record of the use of pigments and chemicals. In comparison, Japan and Europe accounted for 11.6% and 16.8% of their total consumption respectively. Although the application structure of lead in other countries is less reasonable than that in the United States, the global general trend is that the share of storage batteries in the application structure of lead continues to increase. In 1998 and 1999, nearly 80% of the world's refined lead consumption was used in storage batteries, about 7% was used in lead pipes and cable sheaths, lead alloys and lead chemicals accounted for 5% each, and military ammunition accounted for about 2%

for thousands of years, the increasing demand for lead has made the lead mineral resources on the verge of depletion. At present, the global industrial reserves of lead have fallen to 64 million tons. According to the world's annual mining rate of 3million tons, which is still in the important strategic opportunity period of development (based on lead), it is only enough to mine for 21 years. At present, in terms of lead demand, there are three major consumption volumes (1999 data) in Europe (2million tons), North America (1.99 million tons) and Asia (1.81 million tons), resulting in a serious imbalance between mineral (primary) lead production and metal lead consumption. It is predicted that the world's mineral lead production will increase to 3.25 million tons -330 tons from 2000 to 2004, while the global metal lead consumption in 1999 was actually 6.21 million tons. Obviously, the production of mineral lead alone can no longer support the whole sky of lead consumption

at present, in order to solve the serious shortage of primary resources, but also from the consideration of reducing raw materials and processing and smelting costs, as well as meeting the growth of demand, we have to rely more and more on the secondary resource of lead - waste lead. The grid, electrode paste (lead paste) and oxidation of batteries, including hand saw skin, Babbitt bearing alloy and cable sheath, are the main sources of waste lead to save energy by 30%. Among them, waste lead-acid batteries have become the main secondary resources of lead. (to be continued)

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